The Workings of a DC Motor

Eleanor Hanson

Electric motors are all around us. In our homes alone, nearly all mechanical and electrical movement you see around is brought about by a DC (direct current) electric motor and AC (alternating current) electric motor.

It was in 1873 that ZĂ©nobe Gramme created the contemporary DC electric motor. Gramme linked his devised dynamo to another apparatus and steered it like a motor. His invention, the Gramme device, was the first electric motor that pulled off in the field.

Two good examples of electric DC inventions are the innovative ball-bearing motor and the unusual homo polar motor that Michael Faraday created.

In general, a simple DC electric motor consists of six basic parts. These are the rotor or armature, brushes, axle, commutator, field magnet, and DC power supply. An electric motor is powered by magnets that employ magnet fields to produce torque, setting the motor in motion. Those who previously played with magnets are familiar with the elementary principle of magnets, that similar poles repel and opposites attract. The repelling and attracting electromagnetic forces inside an electric motor make the DC motor to create rotating motion.

Magnets are polarized, with a negative and a positive section. Even with comparatively puny magnets, the repulsion of like poles and the attraction of opposite poles are evident. Direct current electric motor utilizes these components to virtually transform electrical current into shifting movement.

A DC electric motor needs at least one electromagnet. An electromagnet serves as the source of an electric motor and it changes the electricity flow as the motor moves, altering its polarization in order to maintain the operation of the motor. The other magnetic fields are either electromagnets or permanent magnets. The electromagnet is typically to be found in the motor’s hub and rotates in the permanent magnets.

A DC electric motor features coils of wire that go around in a magnetic field. The coil is placed in a fixed magnet. The electric flow in the coil is delivered by means of two brushes that produce moving connections with a split ring. The forces applied on the coils of wire initiate for a movement or torque on the coil. The coil also acts as a tiny magnetic dipole.

To better understand and imagine a simple DC electric motor, picture a wheel split into two between two magnets. In this case, the DC motor’s wheel is the electromagnet. The two permanent outer magnets are the negative and the positive. Now, suppose that the right magnet is positive and the left magnet is negative.

The coils of wire on the wheel of the DC motor are being brought in with electric flow and this current ignites a magnetic drive. In order to cause the DC motor to twist and more, the wheels on the permanent positive magnet have to be positively charged and the negative permanent magnet have to be negatively charged as well. And, since opposite charges attract and similar charges repel, the wheel shifts in order for its negative piece turns over around to the right and the positive section of the wheel moves to the left. The magnetic force enables the wheel to spin thus, the movement is utilized to perform and operate.

The consistency and straightforward pattern of DC motors make it an ideal option for countless various purposes. DC motors are largely employed for multiple applications such as remote control cars and electric razors.

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